Thursday, May 17, 2012

Looking back...

Overall I enjoyed the class and I think that Leaves of Grass is definitely a rich resource for assignments and discussions. I understand the appeal of centering the class around online work however I'm not personally a fan of blogging. It is a convenient way to turn in assignments and maybe I'm just not used to it but blogging for whatever reason is more frustrating for me than actually turning assignments in. Although I do enjoy Whitman and I respect his work I was a little disappointed that Frost was not actually included in the course. After awhile focusing so heavily on Whitman alone got kind of intense. I did like the group projects though since it expanded discussion onto different artists. I'm sure that online based coursework is the way of the future anyway so my personal aversion to it should not suggest that the structure of the class was not effective.

Tuesday, May 8, 2012

Woody Guthrie

Guthrie as Whitmanesque:

           Woody Guthrie was born in Okemah, Oklahoma in 1912.  He was an influential folk musician and poet noted for his political lyricism and honest representation of the American people in the Dust Bowl days of the Great Depression.  He was a poet of the people and his words illustrated the character of the American everyman, the average migrant worker and the poor wandering traveler. Guthrie died in 1967 due to complications from Huntington’s disease, which he inherited from his mother.

To Guthrie and Whitman art and politics were inextricably interrelated.  Whitman’s theory of democracy was mainly based on organic rights, simplicity, independence, homespun manners and a general contempt for wealth. Similar themes can be observed across Guthrie’s body of work as well.

Questions to consider:

Is there a distinct relationship between art and politics?

How do Whitman and Guthrie convey this relationship and what role do you think they believe the artist has in politics?

How do they each address/promote the idea of equality amongst American people?

How does Guthrie's approach to the turmoil of his time, and his attitude toward working-class people, compare to Whitman's?

As a medium for inspiration and organization, how does music compare to poetry?

How strong is the legacy of such artists today?

Are we or can we be a more equal and unified country thanks to their work?


Consider the quote below from Whitman’s Song for Occupations:

“Why what have you thought of yourself?
Is it you then that thought yourself less?
Is it that you thought the President greater than you?
or the rich better off than you?
or the educated wiser than you?

Because you are greasy or pimpled—or that you was once drunk, or a thief, or diseased, or rheumatic, or a prostitute—or are so now—or from frivolity or impotence—or that you are no scholar, and never saw your name in print . . . do you give in that you are any less immortal?"

Take a look at Whitman’s Song of the Open Road. Lines 15 through 73 from the poem are shown below but the whole piece is worth reading:

You road I enter upon and look around, I believe you are not all that is here,
I believe that much unseen is also here.

Here the profound lesson of reception, nor preference nor denial,
The black with his woolly head, the felon, the diseas’d, the illiterate person, are not denied;
The birth, the hasting after the physician, the beggar’s tramp, the drunkard’s stagger, the laughing party of mechanics,
The escaped youth, the rich person’s carriage, the fop, the eloping couple,

The early market-man, the hearse, the moving of furniture into the town, the return back from the town,
They pass, I also pass, any thing passes, none can be interdicted,
None but are accepted, none but shall be dear to me.

You air that serves me with breath to speak!
You objects that call from diffusion my meanings and give them shape!
You light that wraps me and all things in delicate equable showers!
You paths worn in the irregular hollows by the roadsides!
I believe you are latent with unseen existences, you are so dear to me.

You flagg’d walks of the cities! you strong curbs at the edges!
You ferries! you planks and posts of wharves! you timber-lined sides! you distant ships!

You rows of houses! you window-pierc’d fa├žades! you roofs!
You porches and entrances! you copings and iron guards!
You windows whose transparent shells might expose so much!
You doors and ascending steps! you arches!
You gray stones of interminable pavements! you trodden crossings!
From all that has touch’d you I believe you have imparted to yourselves, and now would impart the same secretly to me,
From the living and the dead you have peopled your impassive surfaces, and the spirits thereof would be evident and amicable with me.

The earth expanding right hand and left hand,
The picture alive, every part in its best light,
The music falling in where it is wanted, and stopping where it is not wanted,
The cheerful voice of the public road, the gay fresh sentiment of the road.

O highway I travel, do you say to me Do not leave me?
Do you say Venture not—if you leave me you are lost?
Do you say I am already prepared, I am well-beaten and undenied, adhere to me?

O public road, I say back I am not afraid to leave you, yet I love you,
You express me better than I can express myself,
You shall be more to me than my poem.

I think heroic deeds were all conceiv’d in the open air, and all free poems also,
I think I could stop here myself and do miracles,
I think whatever I shall meet on the road I shall like, and whoever beholds me shall like me,
I think whoever I see must be happy.

Take a look at Guthire’s song Pastures of Plenty:

It's a mighty hard row that my poor hands have hoed
My poor feet have traveled a hot dusty road
Out of your Dust Bowl and Westward we rolled
And your deserts were hot and your mountains were cold
I worked in your orchards of peaches and prunes
I slept on the ground in the light of the moon
On the edge of the city you'll see us and then
We come with the dust and we go with the wind
California, Arizona, I harvest your crops
Well its North up to Oregon to gather your hops
Dig the beets from your ground, cut the grapes from your vine
To set on your table your light sparkling wine
Green pastures of plenty from dry desert ground
From the Grand Coulee Dam where the waters run down
Every state in the Union us migrants have been
We'll work in this fight and we'll fight till we win
It's always we rambled, that river and I
All along your green valley, I will work till I die
My land I'll defend with my life if it be
Cause my pastures of plenty must always be free.

Consider Guthrie’s most famous song This Land is Your Land:

This land is your land This land is my land
From California to the New York island; 
From the red wood forest to the Gulf Stream waters 
This land was made for you and Me.
As I was walking that ribbon of highway, 
I saw above me that endless skyway: 
I saw below me that golden valley: 
This land was made for you and me.
I've roamed and rambled and I followed my footsteps 
To the sparkling sands of her diamond deserts; 
And all around me a voice was sounding: 
This land was made for you and me.
When the sun came shining, and I was strolling, 
And the wheat fields waving and the dust clouds rolling, 
As the fog was lifting a voice was chanting: 
This land was made for you and me.
As I went walking I saw a sign there 
And on the sign it said "No Trespassing." 
But on the other side it didn't say nothing, 
That side was made for you and me.
In the shadow of the steeple I saw my people, 
By the relief office I seen my people; 
As they stood there hungry, I stood there asking 
Is this land made for you and me?
Nobody living can ever stop me, 
As I go walking that freedom highway; 
Nobody living can ever make me turn back 
This land was made for you and me.

Tuesday, May 1, 2012

The People Yes...

     Carl Sandburg's "The People Yes" is an interesting poem to read alongside Whitman.  Mencken, a noted journalist, famously referred to Sandburg as "indubitably and American in every pulse-beat."  I would agree that the tone of his poetry has clear American roots behind it down to the title addressing the subject of "the people."  Sandburg's voice was one out of the Depression and I think that this poem successfully voices the state of the everyman at that time.  
     There are definitely similarities in the poetic qualities of Sandburg and Whitman however one very noticeable difference is the voice that each poet takes in these pieces.  Whitman writes with a continuing first person point of view, however this character does move from a more literal being to a more abstract higher-being at times.  Sandburg, on the other hand, writes with a more omniscient third person speaker and reads as someone who seems to be representative of all the people as a whole as opposed to one person relaying ideas to everyone else.  I looked at a particular section of Sandburg's poem with the concluding segment from "Song of Myself."  Here are some instances that parallel in thematic issues and tone, and lines that I thought were particularly strong from each:

The People Yes...
     - The people will live on...You can't laugh off their capacity to take it.
     - The people is a tragic and comic two face.
     - This reaching is alive.
     - Man is a long time coming. Man will yet win.
     - Who can live without hope? Where to? What next?

Song of Myself...
     - It is not chaos or death-it is form, union, plan-it is eternal life-it is Happiness
     - (I am large, I contain multitudes.)
     - I too am not a but tamed, I too am untranslatable.
     - Failing to fetch me at first keep encouraged...I stop somewhere waiting for you.

     Both poets address the theme of the form, the union and the plan.  In Sandburg's poem, he quotes the everyman stating that he has to work to make a living and this work fills all of his time, leaving no time to observe the rest of things.  He conveys the idea that we are constantly working and trying and reaching for the next thing to take us forward.  His poem has movement to it.  The union factors in as he refers to "the people" as a single being existing as one, as Man.  Whitman discusses the same themes in his piece however his voice is one of a rebel, someone who exists with the people but also exists as the individual, someone who cannot be tamed or predicted, someone the people could perhaps be reaching for.

Monday, April 16, 2012

Here coffin that slowly passes, I give you my sprig of lilac...

- "Prais'd be the fathomless universe, for life and joy, and for objects and knowledge curious, and for love, sweet love- but praise! praise! praise! For the sure-enwinding arms of cool-enfolding death."

- Lucille Clifton's poem, "September Songs, A Poem in Seven Days,"I think mirrors some of the themes of "When Lilacs Last..."  Clifton refers to the happenings of 9/11 and the sorrow that surrounds it but juxtaposed with the motifs of fear and death is the birth of her granddaughter Bailey.  She describes the feeling of hatred being outweighed by the all consuming love for the wonderful birth of life in her family. She acknowledges that she knows no one is exempt from death and sadness but that in spite of the violence in the world there still remains love and beauty and new hope.

- "and I am consumed with love for all of it
the everydayness of bravery
of hate of fear of tragedy
of death and birth and hope."

- I also found a similar tone Robert Creeley's poem, "Ground Zero."  The poem is short and sweet but he touches on the themes of ever-continuing life and the fact that everyone is headed for the same inevitable fate of death.  Everything that exists now is only temporary, as were the twin towers, and everything that will exist in the future will only be temporary.  We must all accept this and live anyway because we are only given one chance and regardless of what happens in any one moment in time we will all ultimately turn to dust.

- "Persist, go on, believe.
Dreams may be all we have."

Monday, April 9, 2012

Project Possibility

I thought that for my project it would be interesting to explore some of Whitman's other work other than "Leaves of Grass."  After spending so much time with "Leaves of Grass" I'm curious about his other writing and seeing the evolution of his work outside of the edits of "Leaves of Grass."  I thought that it would also be interesting to write an original poem either directly based on a piece by Whitman or maybe framed after one of his poems.  In one of my other poetry classes from a previous semester we had to choose a poem that we had studied and liked and them write our own poem using that one as a template.  I enjoyed the project because with the framework already laid out it made room for creativity in other areas.  I thought it might be fun to choose a piece by Whitman for a project like this and sometimes I find that when working off of another poet's work I am able to discover something about my own writing and put an original twist.

Whitman in Mass Culture and Modern Media:

     Before I had closely read the work of Whitman I was always aware of him as a poet and a figure that has continued to influence people over the course of a century.  When we first discussed Whitman appearing in modern contexts what initially came to mind was the Ginsberg poem "A Supermarket in California."
      This semester I am also taking a Bob Dylan class where we analyze Dylan's body of work from the start of his career in the 1960's.  In addition to studying Dylan we also delve into the work of the Beat poets, Ginsberg being a prime example.  In his poem "A Supermarket in California" he directly addresses Whitman throughout the poem and I thought it was an interesting synchronicity to come up between my courses.
     "What thoughts I have of you tonight, Walt Whitman, for I walked down the sidestreets under the trees with a headache self-conscious looking at the full moon...I saw you, Walt Whitman, childless, lonely old grubber, poking among the meats in the refrigerator and eyeing the grocery boys."

I feel like I hear references made in shows and movies all the time to Whitman himself or his poetry but one that i remembered was from an episode of "Friends" when Joey is dating a woman named Charlie who is out of his league in terms of intelligence and education.  She is suggesting activities for them to do on their date and she mentions a museum exhibit showcasing the letters of Whitman.

These were the most recent references I could think of but when searching online for other instances of Whitman included in mass culture i found that he had been mentioned on many other shows and movies I've seen such as "Six Feet Under" and "The Twilight Zone."  It seems that Whitman's reputation as a writer lent for the credibility of institutions that used his name of image such as the Walt Whitman Hotel in New Jersey.  I think that we will continue to see Whitman appear in mass culture, and now that I've taken this class the reference won't go over my head!

Thursday, March 8, 2012

Whitman's Reviewers:

Whitman mentions in one of his own reviews that his book is the result of a "certain kind of transcendental thinking, which some have styled philosophy."  I think that Leaves of Grass got the extensive and often times harsh criticism that it did because it was a revolutionary work in the sense that the literary and poetic society had not previously been exposed to the raw and untamed inner thoughts that Walt brings forth in published form.  The piece is often referred to as philosophical because it explores areas of the human condition that previous writers had not addresses, especially on such a personal level.  Walt expresses his awareness of the impression that he makes by essentially ignoring traditional poetic politeness and decency, but also points out that it is not arrogance that sparks his desire to write freely but the passion that was dealt by nature and exists in all of us. 
Whitman is described as "tenderly affectionate, rowdyish, contemplative, sensual, moral, susceptible, and imperious."  This statement brings to light many of the themes that his reviewers addressed, whether positive or a negative.  He was criticized at great length for his use of punctuation in the poem, which at the time was viewed as incorrect and undisciplined as oppose to artful or thought-provoking. 
"His punctuation is as loose as his morality."
Many readers considered the presentation to be offensive and vulgar, "more like the ravings of a drunkard, or one half crazy."  The literary community at the time was not used to works that so blatantly dismissed usual poetic structure and "parlour" appeal.  Critics had trouble seeing past Whitman's use of slang and inclusion of subject matter that to the general public was deemed impolite and shameful.
The theme often comes up of rough vs. refined poetry, Whitman of course falling into the category of rough, wild, and rebellious.  Even his image shown at the beginning of the book is analyzed by critics as being representative of the sloppy style and low verse of the poem to come.   
While Leaves of Grass was widely regarded with negative criticism there were also the readers who recognized the revolutionary tone of the piece and admitted to the desire for sensual and unchecked rawness.  Looking at the piece from a modern perspective I think that Whitman took the bold first step to make way for more contemporary poetry that is based on realness and human nature instead of regulation and academia.

Wednesday, February 29, 2012

A Song For Occupations

Differences between versions:

   - In the '71 version the poem's title is changed to "A Carol for Occupations," however in the future editions it takes on it's original name again.  The only explanation I can imagine for this is that perhaps Whitman was testing how this alteration might allude to a change in the overall tone of the poem but I would also imagine the tonal quality is what encouraged him to change it back to "A Song for Occupations."  Even though a carol is technically a song, there is something about the weight of a song versus a carol that I think makes the difference.  The title of carol seems almost too lighthearted for the earthly subject matter of the poem.
   - There are several instances where in the future editions Whitman adds phrases that directly address a subject and are followed by exclamation points.  For example in the first few stanzas he adds in a call to the "American Masses!"  In another instance he addresses, "Workmen and Workwomen!"  I think this is originally added as a way to further personalize the piece but in later editions he then goes on to cut the beginning lines altogether, which also cuts a few of these additions.
   - There are several cuts that he makes to tighten up the poem such as the line "If you see a good deal remarkable in me I see just as much remarkable in you."  He also ultimately cuts a huge chunk, which initially begins with "I see not merely that you are polite or whitefaced..."  I think that as he revised the piece he most likely was looking to make it more concise overall, which i think he did.  In the 1855 edition there is a good deal of repetition and rambling that I think comes across cleaner in the future edits.
   - One minor change that struck me was in line 39.  In the first edition he writes "Offspring of those not rich," and in future editions he changes it to "Offspring of those ignorant and poor."  Although this is a small alteration I think it id interesting that he would choose to address fundamentally the same group but with phrasing that clearly holds a more negative connotation.  It seems to suggest Whitman's own growing arrogance as he progresses in his career and reevaluates his message in the poem.  Another moment where this is potentially shown is in line 83 when he changes the phrase "The sum of all known value and respect," to "The sum of all known reverence."  Its as if he is speaking more as a leader or advisor of the masses as opposed to an everyman who is one with the masses.  Its amazing how the connotation of words can make such simple changes hold so much weight and suggestion.
   - There is also one added line that I noticed where he addresses "Camerado."  I looked this up and did not find any definition but it is a name that appears in one of Whitman's other poems, which I thought was interesting however I do not know the significance of this.
   - There is also some general moving around of stanzas such as the large portion starting with "When the psalm sings instead of the singer..."  I think that this editing most likely just has to do with Whitman striving to tighten and arrange the piece in a concise way.
   - Overall I liked "A Song for Occupations" in its multiple forms.  I liked the realness of it and how it aimed to address the entirety of the working class and how the functioning world exists for us.  I did feel that some of the descriptions of the specific job areas in the original edit were somewhat rambling like a laundry list, so I think that the poem ultimately benefitted from the cuts and revisions.

Francis Wright

-She was also a writer and is described as a "freethinker.'
-She was against greed, capitalism, and organized religion.
-She fought for sexual freedom from a feminists perspective.
-She was an abolitionist and created a "utopian" community where slaves could be educated before being released as free citizens.  Ultimately the slaves from the commune were moved to Haiti to live freely after he commune financially collapsed.
-Wright was definitely a forward thinker and believed in the equality between genders as well as blacks and whites.

Specimen Days: Growth-Health-Work

     This segment is written mainly in summary about a chunk of Whitman's younger days working and living in and around New York.  Although there isn't much information in the section there are a few instances where Whitman's voice comes through the text.
     He describes himself as a "most omnivorous novel reader," which seems to indicate that he read often and chose a wide variety of texts.  He goes on to say that he "devour'd everything he could get."  This shows that his passion for reading and writing began at an early age.  He claims to have been fond of the theater but also says that he witnessed fine performance only sometimes, which could either indicate that only a handful of performances were worth remembering or perhaps that some of time he didn't necessarily enjoy it at all.
     He claims his experience teaching in schools was his best experience and held the "deepest lessons in human nature."  These years undoubtedly influenced his future works, especially since he indicated that it taught him about human nature.
     There was one other moment in the final sentence that i found interesting, Whitman refers to his early attempts at poetry and puts the word poetry in quotation marks.  I suppose this is with the intent to leave room for interpretation as to what is even considered poetry and I felt that it might even possibly show a hint of sarcasm with regards to the broad concept of poetry itself.

Thursday, February 16, 2012

A Happy Hour's Command- Specimen Days

This segment is broken up into two sections written at different times, the second of which refers back to the previously written section.  The first was written "down in the woods" and Whitman starts by describing his incongruous and sporadic writing habits in his notebooks and how he values the randomness of his jottings.  He compares this with the common habits of people who live their lives planning and organizing for what may come but then ultimately wind up unprepared for what life holds.  In this section I also noticed the word "melange," meaning mixture, which I had to look up but I think its a great word.  In the following section Whitman refers back to what he wrote and briefly mentions his time in the hospital observing war aftermath and even experiencing some health problems himself.  I like how he closed the segment by again mentioning the random and disorganized nature of his writings.  He said he'll just "tumble the thing together, and [let] hurry and crudeness tell the story better than fine work" can.  He admits that his book may be the most wayward and fragmentary book ever but he expresses this with pride.

Wednesday, February 8, 2012

Whitman's Peers

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow- "The Village Blacksmith
                                                 - "The Wreck of the Hesperus"
   In terms of form Wadsworth's poems both have a clear rhyme scheme.  In "The Village Blacksmith" the rhyme and form are not as formulaic as in the "The Wreck of the Hesperus" with its four line stanzas.  The subject matter differs somewhat from Whitman's themes.  For example in the first poem the speaker describes the daily life of the blacksmith, which includes hard work, long hours, and church attendance.  The lifestyle of the blacksmith does not align with Whitman's lifestyle of poetry, loafing, and eroticism in "Leaves of Grass."  Wordsworth's poems each feature a parent-child relationship and a death, which lends for an emotional connection on an individual level.  In the first poem the blacksmith sheds a tear watching his daughter sing and thinking of his deceased wife.  In a way it could be argued that this shows a similarity between the two poets because Whitman does refer to being in touch with one's emotions and one's femininity as well as masculinity, which can be seen in the juxtaposition of the blacksmith's muscles and brawn with his expression of love and grief.  In the second poem a father-daughter relationship is also introduced and a death occurs within the body of the poem.  It reads like a an old sailor's tale, which has a different tonal quality than Whitman's philosophical musings.

Anne C. Lynch- "An Imitation"
   In Lynch's poem nature is a major theme, which parallels with Whitman's poem, although the rhyme scheme and format is more specific in "An Imitation."  It seems that Whitman's peers generally kept closer to formal poetic structure than Whitman but that's not a surprise since he was ahead of his time in more ways than this.

Monday, February 6, 2012

Whitman Motifs:

1)  One recurring theme that caught my attention in Song of Myself was the concept of balance.  This motif was not only presented throughout the poem with the overt use of contrasting terms within a sentence but Whitman also alludes to the idea of balance in some of the sections where he describes broader concepts.
Here are some examples of yin and yang terminology that I noticed as I read:
                - "I am of old and young, of the foolish as much as the wise, Regardless of others, ever regardful of others, Maternal as well as paternal..."
                - "I am the poet of the woman as well as the man, And I say it is as great to be a woman as to be a man"
                - "I too am of one phase and of all phases.  Partaker of influx and efflux..."
                - "I am not the poet of goodness only...I do not decline to be the poet of wickedness also."
                - " more modest than immodest."
                - "...of wombs, and of the fatherstuff"
                - "sounds of the city and sounds out of the city...sounds of the day and night."
                - "Backing and filling, appearing and disappearing"
                - "I help myself to material and immaterial"
                - "...the living and dead lay together"
                - "And know that they who have eyes are divine, and the blind and lame are equally divine"
                - "...ever the upward and downward sun...ever the air and the ceaseless tides"
                - "I do not call one greater and one smaller, that which fills its period and place is equal to any."

  Whitman even brings balance to his belief system and all the topics he covers by suggesting that he contradicts himself, or essentially places weight on both sides of almost all the arguments he makes.  I think that this is a very important thematic concern of the poem because it seems that Whitman's most fundamental purpose throughout the piece is to create a sense of unity amongst all beings.  He aims to develop acceptance for all people and animals and faiths and while he feels there is no one greater than himself and he encourages others to "stand cool and supercilious before a million universes," he also admits to his own faults and misunderstandings and suggests those within others and doesn't even surrender an all-knowing power to God.  

2)  A literary device that Whitman utilizes throughout the piece is anaphora, or the use of the same word or phrase at the beginning of several sentences consecutively.  There are countless less notable instances of this in segments using "the" or pronouns such as "you" at the start of sentences but here are some more unique examples:
  - "For me all that have been boys...
  For me the man that is proud...
  For me the sweetheart and the old maid...
  For me lips that have smiled...
  For me children and the begetters of children."

  - "If they are not yours...
  If they do not enclose...
  If they are not the riddle...
  If they are not just as close..."

  - "Earth of the slumbering...
  Earth of departed sunset...
  Earth of the vitreous pour...
  Earth of shine and dark...
  Earth of the limpid gray..."

  - "Ever the hard and unsunk...
  Ever the eaters and drinkers...
  Ever myself and my neighbors...
  Ever the old inexplicable query...
  Ever the vexer's hoot...
  Ever love...
  Ever the bandage..."

  I think that Whitman chose this rhetorical device not only to create the repetition that we see throughout the poem but also for emphasis and rhythm.  The technique gives a melodic quality to the expressions, which might otherwise feel overly dense and rambling.  For such a long poem I think that this was a wise choice on Whitman's part to break up the varying ideas he discusses and to give the rant a poetic flow.

3)  Another major motif that Whitman refers to again and again is God or at least his concept of God and faith.  He makes several references to the "divine," things made "holy," "prayer" and "worship," but he also heavily references ideas that are in direct contrast to these things such as open sexuality and science.  He does not claim a clear affiliation and gives equal weight to the faiths of others, he does however capitalize the "g" in "God," which indicates his respect and acknowledgement for some higher power or being.  Here are some instances where "God" is mentioned:

  - "I visit the orchards of God and look at the spheric product"
  - "And I know that the hand of God is the elderhand of my own, And I know that the spirit of God is the eldest brother of my own..."
  - "Divine am I inside and out, and I make holy whatever I touch or am touched from;  The scent of these arm-pits is aroma finer than prayer, This head is more than churches or bibles or creeds."
  - "I do not despise you priests;  My faith is the greatest of faiths and the least of faiths, Enclosing all worship ancient and modern, and al between ancient and modern...Waiting responses from oracles...honoring the gods...saluting the sun..."
  - "God will be there and wait till we come."
  - "And I call to mankind, Be not curious about God, For I who am curious about each am not curious about God, No array of terms can say how much I am at peace about God and about death."

  I think that it was necessary for Whitman to include references to God and the concept of spirituality in general because he covers such a broad range of topics regarding humanity that something essential would be missing if he did not.  He also makes so many references to eternity and the universe and ideas that are simply incomplete without the mention of spiritual faith and beliefs influenced by religion.  However since he doesn't claim one specific religion or definition of God, he presents a message that can be appreciated and understood by everyone equally.  He states that he sees God in everyone and everything and throughout everyday and every moment.  I think this is a very enlightened position to take, especially during Whitman's day, which was more heavily influenced by religion.

4)  Asking questions to the self and to the reader is another technique that Whitman repeats in Song of Myself.  I think this represents his thought process and creates space for the reader to consider their own answers to these questions before reading through his train of thought.  I think this humanizes Whitman and serves to further unite himself with the reader.

 - "Have you reckoned the earth much?"
 - "Have you felt so proud to get at the meaning of poems?"
 - "Who need be afraid of the merge?"
 - "Do you guess I have some intricate purpose?"
 - "Shall I venerate and be ceremonious?"
 - "What is a man anyhow? What am I?"
 - "To be in any form, what is that?"
 - "...and what is called reason, and what is called love, and what is called life?"

Tuesday, January 31, 2012

Two Brooklyn Boys-Specimen Days

-Here in this same ward are two young men from Brooklyn, members of the 51st New York. I had known both the two as young lads at home, so they seem near to me. One of them, J. L., lies there with an amputated arm, the stump healing pretty well. (I saw him lying on the ground at Fredericksburgh last December, all bloody, just after the arm was taken off. He was very phlegmatic about it, munching away at a cracker in the remaining hand -- made no fuss.) He will recover, and thinks and talks yet of meeting the Johnny Rebs.

--This one stuck with me mainly because of the dark humor that seeps through the horrific image of a man with a bloody stump of an arm munching on a cracker with his remaining hand in a phlegmatic manner.  The image is gory and we are even taken back to Fredericksburgh where he was seen lying on the ground but the horror of the scene is lightened by the fact that he not only made no fuss but maintained the will to eat.  He then goes on to say that the man will recover and it is said so plainly and lightly that it is difficult to even feel the seriousness of the entry or the permanent affect of the injury itself.  This brings out Whitman's continuing attitude that life as well as death cannot be taken too seriously.

Song of Myself lines

- All goes onward and outward....and nothing collapses,
  And to die is different from what anyone supposed, and luckier.

-These lines immediately caught my attention mainly because there is such simplicity paralleled with life and death, which are the broadest of concepts.  Although he is referring to death here and in the lines that precede these lines, it is with a positive and almost pleasurable tone, making death seem like such an easy feat to accept.  He states that "nothing collapses," which suggests the reincarnate quality of Earth and life and by describing it as only "onward and outward" there seems to be no room for negative connotation with regards to nature and way of things.  He then goes on to say that not only is death not what one generally expects but it is in fact "luckier," as if it is not something to be feared but something to be revered and possibly even anticipated.  He compares the luck of birth with the equal luck of death, which places weight evenly along the entire flow of life and evenly amongst all of us.  I like this because of the unity it creates not only among people but among all nature and life for all time.

The greatest poet... a seer...he is individual...he is complete in himself...the others are as good as he, only he sees it and they do not.